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Standard bialkaline photomultipliers (PMT) and EMI 9235QB PMTs do not detect emissions beyond 650 nm, whereas electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) cameras can capture the whole range (modified after Ref. (a) When using the additive dose method, incremental doses are administered on top of the natural dose and then measured.(b) With the regenerative dose approach, samples are first zeroed to remove any previously acquired dose and then given incremental doses, followed by measuring.(b) At appropriate sites, electrons are trapped while holes may become localized.(c) Thermal (TL) or optical (OSL) stimulation of the material results in electrons being evicted from the traps.(b) A glow-curve from incandescence resulting from the second heating of the sample to a high temperature. Bleaching rates of quartz (q) and feldspar (f) stimulated using TL and OSL (green light) conducted by Godfrey-Smith et al. For the OSL, both quartz and feldspar used a green laser and a detection window of 380 nm which is violet to near-UV [50]. Examples of TL (a, b) and OSL (c, d) emission spectra (adapted with permission from Ref. For TL spectra, the sharp rise in emissions beyond 650 nm is largely from incandescence (rather than from electrons evicted from traps). Main emission wavelengths for quartz and feldspars used in luminescence dating as well as wavelengths employed for stimulation.It is important to note that incandescence is also realized above 400°C during the first heating (redrawn from Ref. Sensitivity ranges for some detectors are also shown. Main methods employed in determining the equivalent dose.Luminescence dating of sediment relies upon the fact that the geological luminescence signal of the sediment is reduced to a near-zero residual due to exposure to daylight during weathering and transport (see Aitken, 1985, 1998).

Most electrons recombine or are briefly trapped in very shallow traps, but a few are trapped at deep traps and remain there over geological time-scales (1-1000 Ma).► Suggestions for future work to improve analytical methods are made.Trapping: Upon exposure to nuclear radiation, some bound electrons of the atoms making up a mineral's lattice are detached from their parent nuclei and become freely mobile: they are said to enter the conduction band.Physics » "Luminescence - An Outlook on the Phenomena and their Applications", book edited by Jagannathan Thirumalai, ISBN 978-9-5, Print ISBN 978-9-8, Published: November 10, 2016 under CC BY 3.0 license. Both electrons and holes diffuse within the lattice. An energy level diagram that illustrates how ionizing radiation creates luminescence centers in crystal lattices (redrawn from Ref. (a) Following irradiation, electrons are expelled from their original sites leaving holes behind.

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In the last few years studies have been undertaken into a new signal from quartz termed the thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) signal.

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